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Classification of cutting performance of stainless steel

Classification of stainless steel based on microstructure and heat treatment conditions is the most common method for classifying the cutting performance of stainless steel. This classification categorizes all stainless steel into three major categories, namely hardened stainless steel (martensitic stainless steel), non hardened stainless steel (ferritic stainless steel), and austenitic stainless steel. Each of these three major categories includes some easily machinable steel grades. Now, a brief introduction to these three major categories of stainless steel is as follows:

Class 1: Hardened stainless steel (martensitic stainless steel)

This type of stainless steel is composed of steel cables in the 400 series that can be hardened through heat treatment, among which the types of free cutting stainless steel include 416, 420F, and 440F; The general cutting performance includes 403, 410, 420, 431, 440A, 440B, 440C, etc; All of the above steels are martensitic stainless steel, therefore they have magnetism in the annealed state; Various hardness levels can be achieved through quenching and tempering. The most easily machinable steels of this type are 416 and 416F, while the most difficult to machinable ones are 440C, as the high carbon content of 440C steel can cause severe wear of cutting tools.

Type 2: Non hardening stainless steel (ferritic stainless steel)

This type of stainless steel includes those steel grades in the 400 series that cannot be significantly hardened through heat treatment. These steels have a ferrite structure and therefore have magnetism in the annealed state. Among them, there are 430F types of easy cutting stainless steel; The cutting performance is average, including 405, 430, and 446

Type 3: Austenitic stainless steel

This type of stainless steel is the so-called nickel chromium 300 series stainless steel. Recently, their scope has expanded to include several Cr Ni Mn steels from the 200 series. The microstructure of this type of steel in the annealed state is austenite, so it is basically non magnetic and cannot be hardened through heat treatment. However, the vast majority of work hardening rates in this type of stainless steel are very high, of course, much higher than ferritic and martensitic stainless steels

Among this type of steel, 303303Se is easily machinable. In addition, it also includes some standard austenitic stainless steels, such as 201202301302304305308309310316316321347, etc. There are many other austenitic stainless steels that have not been included in national standards. Compared with most martensitic or ferritic stainless steels, the cutting process of austenitic stainless steels is much more difficult. The main difference is that austenitic stainless steels with small annealing states are very sticky, Cutting often produces fibrous chips, which can only be avoided by using special processes. In addition, the high work hardening rate during machining can also cause cutting difficulties.

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Mr. Zhu
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